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Handball
The program we propose to handball players will increase limb muscle strength, strength endurance, dynamic strength, muscle tone and co-ordination capabilities, by enhancing among others maximal strength of motor muscles and torso muscle function, supporting limbic functions. It does also develop stabilizer function of deep torso muscles, putting attention and emphasis on trapezium, rotator cuff, buttock- and knee flexor muscles to be harmonized, all of them being very important for rhythm development and co-ordination capabilities.
The below exercises may be done instead of those of the given order, to make the circuit workout more varied:
2.: Jump-up, Lunge or Hop On Small Vaulting Box
4.: Frontal Metkalfi or Scissor
5.: Angle Jerk
Description of substitute exercises may be found at the section “Static and Dynamic exercises”.

LIFTING
(the flour bag)
Bend knees and get hold of the bag with both hands, then stand up, extend knees and hip. Swing the bag above arms and shoulders, lift it upwards and lay it on one shoulder. Then lay it back down, shift holds and repeat the exercise.
Good to know
When holding the SPARROWBAG®, get hold of the textile material, but also some sand inside it. The back should be kept correctly. When initiating a movement, the back is slightly bent, and lifting is started from the buttocks and the legs, to avoid overstressing the spine. When lowering the bag, do not throw it down, to avoid injuries of the SPARROWBAG®. For children: Hold is different for the children. Symmetric hold relieves stress from forearms and shoulders. (See small pictures)
For trainers
Motor muscles
ankle (upward/plantarflexion) m.gastrocnemius, m.soleus, knee (upward/extension) m.quadriceps femoris, hip (up/extension) m.gluteus maximus, knee flexors, elbow (up/flexion) m.biceps brachii, m.brachialis, m.brachioradialis, shoulder (up/flexion, abduction), m.deltoideus front and middle part, m.supraspinatsus, m.pectoralis major (part: clavicularis), scapula (up/down rotation) m.serratus anterior
Stabilizers
m.erector spinae és a m.quadratus lumborum are the basic dynamic stabilizers of the lumbar region vertebral column in straight position, (m.trapezius lower and middle part, m.levator scapulae, mm.rhomboidei, m.serratus anterior) upper limbs (rotator sheath, m.deltoideus, upper limbs muscles) torso (abdominal muscles) hips (gluteal muscles, external hip muscles, adductor group) lower limbs (m.quadriceps- and rectus femoris, knee flexors) lower part of lower limbs (ankle stabilizers, m.tibialis anterior, m.gastrocnemius)
ZERCHER SQUAT
Lay the bag on the chest with the hands clasping it from beneath. Push the hip backwards and get down until knees are bent to an angle of 90 degrees. Keep the position for one second then get back to starting position.
BODY BENDING TO THE FRONT
in standing position
Put the bag symmetrically on the back of the neck. Bend torso forward keeping the back straight (legs slightly bent). Then get back to starting position. The exercise can be executed with hands holding the bag on both sides. Bend torso until elbows touch the knees.
Good to know
Take care to keep a correct posture. At the initial phase of the exercise the back should be hold hollowed to avoid overstressing the spine. The bending should be executed till a maximum of 45°. The exercise can be executed with hands on hip.
For trainers
Motor muscles
hips (up/extension, down/flexion) m.gluteus maximus, knee flexors, spine (up/extension, down/flexion) m.erector spinae
Stabilizers
lower limb (m.quadriceps- and rectus femoris) torso (abdominal muscles, m.trapezius, mm.rhomboidei, m.erector spinae)
LUNGE
with the bag
Put the bag symmetrically on the back of the neck and hold it on both sides. Step forward into a lunge position and lower the body until knees are bent to 90 degrees. Back knee (almost) touches the ground. Get back to start position, shift legs and repeat the exercise.
Good to know
Perform this with straight posture. The direction of the step may be to the side, or frontal, or backward. For children: a smaller step to the back and simultaneously bending of the knee makes it easier and more stable to do the exercise (See small pictures)
For trainers
Motor muscles
hip (front leg) (down/flexion, up/extension) m.gluteus maximus knee flexors, knee (front leg) (down/flexion, up/ extension) m.quadriceps femoris
Stabilizers
torso (abdominal group, m.erector spinae, m.quadratus lumborum), hip (m.gluteus medius and minimus, deep eccentric rotators, adductor group), lower part of lower limb (ankle stabilizers, m.gastrocnemius)
SHOULDER PRESS
with the bag, in standing position
Hold the bag on palms of hands symmetrically, lowered behind the head. Extend arms and push the bag above the head, then lower it back down, first above the chest, then behind the back of the neck.
Good to know
The easiest way to hold the bag is on open hand palms, index fingers pointing toward each other. This prevents the bag to be bent in the middle (see small pictures). Take care to keep the spine correctly: in the initial phase of the exercise, the hip should not lean forward. This can be avoided by stepping back with one leg.
For trainers
Motor muscles
elbow (up/extension, down/flexion) m.triceps brachii, shoulder (up/abduction, flexion, down/adduction, extension) m.deltoideus, m.pectoralis major (claviular part), scapula (rotation up-up, rotation down-down) m.serratus anterior, m.trapezius
Stabilizers
body (abdominal muscles, m.erector spinae), shoulder articulation (rotator sheath), scapula (m.serratus anterior, mm.rhomboidei, m.trapezius lower part), forearm (wrist flexors)
BODY BENDING TO THE SIDE
Put the bag symmetrically on the back of the neck and hold it on both sides. Bend torso left and then right. Do not lean forward!
Good to know
Take care to keep the back straight. Do not lean forward deeper than 35°.
For trainers
Motor muscles
spine region (side bent and back) m.rectus abdominis, m.obliquus externus abdominis, m.obliquus internus abdominis, m.quadratus lumborum (opposite side to bending)
Stabilizers
abdominal muscle group- torso (m.quadratus lumborum, m.erector spinae) adductor group (m.gluteus medius and minimus) shoulder articulation (rotator sheath) scapula (m.serratus anterior, mm.rhomboidei, m.trapezius lower part)
ARM CURL
standing, with the bag
Hold the bag with both hands, elbows extended, transversal in front of body. Lift up towards forehead bending the elbows. Then let the bag back down to starting position, arms fully extended.
Good to know
Standing stance is to be stable, and focus can be maximized on arm bending. The bag should be hold not only by the textile material, but grasp also some sand!
For trainers
Motor muscles
elbow (up/flexion, m.biceps brachii, m.brachialis, m.brachioradialis, m.deltoideus front part)
Stabilizers
torso (abdominal muscle group, m.erector spinae, m.quadratus lumborum) shoulder (m.deltoideus, rotator sheath, m.pectoralis major) scapula (m.serratus anterior, mm.rhomboidei, m.trapezius lower and middle part) forearm (wrist flexors)
TRICEPS 2.
in seated position
Sit down in wide straddle knees bent a bit. For starting position hold up the bag above the head with stretched arms and open palms from underarm. Keep the elbows closely the head and bend them then let the bag down behind the head. With this lift the bag back to starting position.
BAG CROSS-LIFT
in sitting position
Lay bag on the outer side of one thigh. Hold it with both hands and lift it diagonally up to chin level, then put it down on the other side. Repeat on the other side.
Good to know
Right way to hold bag: When holding the SPARROWBAG®, grasp the sand on both sides, or handle it in the middle.
For trainers
Motor muscles
hip (up/extension) m.gluteus maximus, vertebral column (up/extension) m.erector spinae, shoulders (up/flexion, abduction, eccentric rotation) m.deltoideus, m.supraspinatus, m.infraspinatus, m.teres major, m.pectoralis major (claviural part), scapula (up/lifting, upward rotation) m.trapezius upper part, m.levator scapulae, m.serratus anterior, elbow (up/flexion) m.biceps barchii, wrist (up/extension) m.extensor carpi radialis longus, m.extensor carpi radialis brevis, m.extensor carpi ulnaris
Stabilizers
m.erector spinae and m.quadratus lumborum are the basic dynamic stabilizers in keeping the lumbar spine region straight. Furthermore the scapula: m.trapezius lower and middle part, m.levator scapulae, mm.rhomboidei, m.serratus anterior, upper limb: rotator sheath, m.deltoideus, arm muscles, torso: abdominal muscle group, hip: gluteal muscle group, deep eccentric rotators, adductor group
CHEST FLY
to one side
Lay on back and hold the bag above the chest with stretching arms. Keep the bag on the palms with open fingers. Bend elbows and letting the bag down on one side in line with the chest. Then stretch the arms again upwards and repeat exercise on other side as well.
PULL-OVER
Lay on back with knees pulled up and bent. Hold the bag above the chest with both hands, elbows bent to the side. Push the bag upward away from the chest, and then lower it behind the head in a way that the bag almost touches the ground. Then pull it over again above the head to the chest and lower it into starting position.
Good to know
Hold the SPARROWBAG® on open hand palms, shoulder width support. For those who find this exercise too difficult: pull-over may be substituted by the chest (bench) press exercise. Push the SPARROWBAG® from start position until arms are extended, then slowly lower it back into start position. (See small pictures)
For trainers
Motor muscles
elbow (up/extension, down/flexion) m.triceps brachii, shoulder (up/horizontal adduction, down/horizontal abduction) m.pectoralis major, m.deltoideus front part, m.triceps brachii, m.serratus anterior
Stabilizers
torso (abdominal muscle group) m.latissimus dorsi, m.teres major / minor, shoulder (m.deltoideus, rotator sheath, m.pectoralis major) scapula (m.serratus anterior, mm.rhomboidei, m.trapezius lower part) forearm (wrist flexors), elbow (m.triceps brachii, m.brachialis) spine (abdominal and gluteal group, with some spine stabilizer function of the m.latissimus dorsi)
SIT-UP
with the bag
Lay on back with knees pulled up and bent and put the bag on the chest, arms around it from the bottom. Lift upper body slowly toward knees. The sit-up should be fully executed. The bag should touch the knees while remaining close to the chest, pause there and then lay back into starting position.
Good to know
Take care to keep the legs in correct position. The sit-up may be executed alternately with other types of abdominal strength exercises, like various crunches. (See small pictures)
For trainers
Motor muscles
spine (up/bending, down/extension) abdominal muscle group, hip (up/bending, down/extension) m.iliopsias, m.quadriceps- and rectus femoris
Stabilizers
neck (m.sternocleidomastoideus), scapula (m.serratus anterior, mm.rhomboidei and m.trapezius lower part), abdomen, torso (m.rectus abdominis, m.obliquus externus abdominis)